As we see various technologies deployed for containing the spread of COVID-19, a lack of adequate purpose limitation and other data protection principles will lead citizens to distrust both the government and the technology. This will be counterproductive, making the app’s primary function — contact tracing — difficult. Some resources on the subject:
1.Kumar and Bhardwaj, "The publication of COVID-19 quarantine lists violates the right to privacy" April 2020, Caravan Magazine.
2. Mehrotra, "Only one in six positive cases has Aarogya Setu app" May 2020, Indian Express
3. Banerjea, "Aarogya Setu app can be used as e-pass to facilitate travel amid lockdown" April 2020, Livemint
4. Tiwari et al., "Privacy Framework for the Aarogya Setu App" May 2020, the Dialogue
5. Raskar et al., "Apps Gone Rogue: Maintaining Personal Privacy in an Epidemic " March 2020, arXiv
Maintaining patient privacy through the pandemic is crucial in order to respect fundamental principles of digital privacy as well as protect them from unnecessary stigma and harassment. This is difficult when it comes to contact tracing efforts, but there have already been privacy conserving solutions adopted in various parts of the world. Some resources on the subject:
1. Tripathy, "Contact Tracing for COVID-19- A Global Snapshot of Utility-Privacy Tradeoff", May 2020, PSA Legal
2. Deb "Privacy prescriptions for technology interventions on Covid-19 in India", 2020, Internet Freedom Foundation
3. Multiple, "Unified research on privacy-preserving contact tracing and exposure notification", 2020
4. Blumental and Blumental, "Contact Tracing must balance Privacy and Public Health", May 2020, STAT
5. Radio Corona, "What digital contact tracing means for privacy", May 2020 MIT Technology Review
As the lockdown has led to several interpersonal relationships going online, it is important to reduce both the actual risk of harrasment and the anxiety around it. Some resources on the subject:
1. Cyber Democracy, "Episode 17 – Tindering with Bumble & Hinge", 2020, Suno India.
4. Olejnik, "India's Data Protection Bill Threatens Global Cybersecurity", February 2020, WIRED.
5. Schmitt, "Global Perspectives on Data Collection, Contact Tracing, and COVID-19" April 2020, Berkman Klein Center.
Digital healthcare has become vital during the pandemic. Part of improving health service is analysing patient data and aggregating health records. However this sensitive personal data requires responsible regulation and safeguards. Some resources on the subject:
1. Open House Discussion On National Health Stack, May 2020, ISpirit
2. Sharma, "Health database on the cards: Centre puts proposal in fast lane", June 2020, Livemint
3. Varma, "Explained: What is the Sprinklr row Kerala govt’s Covid-19 response is embroiled in?", April 2020, Indian Express
4. Barber and Molteni, "Google Is Slurping Up Health Data—and It Looks Totally Legal", November 2019, WIRED
Despite the introduction of various digital platforms for identifying and authenticating beneficiaries of social protection programmes, these technologies are subject to several implementation challenges when it comes to interoperability. Some resources on the subject:
1. Raghavan, "Transaction failure rates in the Aadhaar enabled Payment System Urgent issues for consideration and proposed solutions", May 2020, Dvara Research
2. Agarwal et. al. "PM Garib Kisan Yojana : Coverage, Identification and Implementation" April 2020, IDFC Institute.
3. Social Registries for Social Assistance and Beyond: A Guidance Note and Assessment Tool, World Bank
4. Gillingham, Graham, "Big Data in Social Welfare: The Development of a Critical Perspective on Social Work's Latest “Electronic Turn”, Australian Social Work
5. Sharma, "Explained: What is the ‘One Nation, One Ration Card’ system?", May 2020, Indian Express
The idea of regulating information intermediaries (especially social media) to prevent misinformation and assign liability has gained significant attention in recent times. Some resources on the subject:
1. Bahl et al., "Internet intermediaries and online harms: Regulatory Responses", April 2020, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
2. SFLC, "The future of Intermediary Liability" Jan 2020
3. Stanford CIS World Intermediary Liability Map
4. Manila Principles on Intermediary Liability
5. Agarwal, "Is Mastodon the answer to online hate speech?", November 2019 Medianama